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Cloud-based totally supply code management (SCM) structures help integration with self-hosted CI/CD answers through webhooks, that's amazing for DevOps automation.

but, the benefits can include safety trade-offs.

consistent with new findings from researchers at Cider, malicious actors can abuse webhooks to get admission to inner assets, run faraway code execution (RCE), and likely achieve opposite shell get entry to.

Webhook IP tiers
software program-as-a-service (SaaS) SCM systems offer an IP range for their webhooks. businesses should open their networks to those IP stages to permit integration between the SCM and their self-hosted CI/CD systems.

Attackers can use webhooks to get past an agency’s firewalls. but SCM webhooks have strict limits, and there's very little room to make changes to webhook requests.

however, the researchers observed that with the right adjustments, they could get beyond the limited endpoints to be had to SCM webhooks.

gaining access to CI/CD endpoints
on the CI/CD side, the researchers ran their experiments on Jenkins, an open-source DevOps server.

"We chose Jenkins because it’s self-hosted and usually used, however [our findings] can be implemented to any gadget this is available from the SCM, like artifact registries for example," Gil said.

at the SCM aspect, they tested both GitHub and GitLab. while webhooks have been designed to cause particular CI endpoints, they might alter requests to direct them to other endpoints that go back person records or the console output of pipelines. however, limits continue to be.

Exploiting webhooks
the use of GitLab, the researchers were able to use webhooks to mix post and GET requests to get admission to internal assets. interestingly, a few Jenkins assets are available without authentication.

In case authentication changed into required, the researchers found that they may direct webhooks to the login endpoint and behavior brute-force password assaults against the CI/CD platform. once authenticated, they obtained a session cookie that might be used to get admission to different sources.
If the Jenkins example had a susceptible plugin, the webhook mechanism ought to make the most it. within the evidence-of-idea video above, the researchers show that they could force a susceptible Jenkins server to down load a malicious JAR document, run it at the server, and release a opposite shell endpoint for the attacker.

This locating what is a botnet a reminder of the dangers created whilst CI/CD servers are partially open to the net.

"A airtight solution is to disclaim inbound site visitors from the SCM webhook provider, but it normally comes with engineering fees," Gil stated. "some countermeasures may be taken, like putting a secure authentication mechanism within the CI, patching, and making sure all moves inside the server are saved in the logs."

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